Cases of text recycling
The recycling of text is a rather common form of dubious practices in academia, even though differences between various subsets of authors are extensive (Horbach & Halffman, 2017).
As by January 2018, RetractionWatch listed 349 papers which have been retracted because of duplication of text. Some notable examples of text recycling are the cases of economist Peter Nijkamp in the Netherlands (Horbach & Halffman, 2017) and food researcher Brian Wansink in the US (McCook, 2017). These cases, among others, demonstrate the controversial nature of text recycling as a form of academic misconduct, raising intensive debate among scholars about the permissibility of the practice in specific circumstances.